Moderne Sklaverei


Sklaverei klingt nach etwas, das schon weit in der Geschichte zurückliegt und heutzutage niemanden mehr betrifft. Allerdings ist das Gegenteil davon der Fall: Etwa 40,3 Millionen Menschen weltweit sind Opfer der sogenannten modernen Sklaverei, ganze 10 Millionen davon sind Kinder
. Erschreckend hohe Zahlen dafür, dass man im Alltag sehr selten mit diesem Thema in Berührung kommt. Dabei ist die moderne Sklaverei häufig näher, als man denken mag – allein schon die Kleidung, die bei uns zu Spottpreisen in Billigläden verkauft wird und die Schokolade, für die wir teils weniger als einen Euro zahlen müssen, sind zum Beispiel oft damit verbunden.

„Sklaverei“ an sich ist grundsätzlich bloß ein Begriff, der viele verschiedene Formen zusammenfasst, auf die Menschen ausgebeutet werden können. Grundsätzlich lassen sich aber vier Hauptmerkmale feststellen, die darauf schließen lassen, dass sich eine Person in Sklaverei befindet.

Das erste davon ist, dass jemand durch psychische oder physische Drohungen dazu gezwungen wird, für jemand anderen zu arbeiten. Eng damit verknüpft ist auch das zweite Erkennungsmerkmal, das aussagt, dass die betroffene Person Besitz eines „Arbeitgebers“ ist oder von diesem vollkommen beherrscht wird. Das dritte Merkmal von Sklaverei ist das Entmenschlichen einer Person, etwa dadurch, dass diese wie ein Verbrauchsgut behandelt wird oder sogar als „Eigentum“ verkauft wird. Schließlich ist das letzte Merkmal noch, dass jemand merklich eingeschränkt ist, ob nun physisch oder in seiner Freiheit als Mensch.

Bild von Craig Clark auf Pixabay

Während sich sämtliche Variationen der Sklaverei in diesen vier Grundeigenschaften ähnlich sind, so gibt es doch unzählige Arten, auf die Menschen versklavt werden können. Die bekannteste davon ist die Zwangsarbeit, mit der jegliche Form von Arbeit oder Dienstleistung bezeichnet wird, die eine Person gegen ihren Willen verrichten muss, um einer Bestrafung zu entgehen. Tatsächlich ist aber eine andere Ausprägung der Sklaverei, die Schuldknechtschaft, sogar noch weiter verbreitet: Menschen, die sich eine Geldsumme geliehen haben, die sie nicht zurückzahlen können, werden dazu verpflichtet, ihre Schulden in Form von Arbeit zu begleichen

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. Auch der Menschenhandel, bei dem Personen zum Zweck der Ausbeutung verschleppt werden, zählt zur Sklaverei. Viele Menschen haben überhaupt das Pech, in die Sklaverei geboren zu werden: Da bereits ihre Vorfahren versklavt wurden, erwartet sie dasselbe Schicksal. Nicht zuletzt betrifft die Sklaverei auch die Kinder – die Kindersklaverei ist eine besonders schreckliche Art davon, sei es nun in Form von Kinderhandel, Kindersoldaten oder häuslicher Sklaverei. Auch Zwangsheirat im jungen Alter, der die Kinder nicht entfliehen können, kann man oft zur Sklaverei zählen.

 

Quellen:

https://www.br.de/puls/themen/welt/moderne-sklaverei-100.html

https://www.unseenuk.org/modern-slavery/modern-slavery

https://www.antislavery.org/slavery-today/

https://www.antislavery.org/slavery-today/modern-slavery/

Beitragsbild: ©PublicDomainPictures auf Pixabay

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